Honey in Jars
Preparing liquid honey
· selection Choose the best for :- clarity, taste, scent, colour, and have enough for 3 jars minimum.
· grading Use a grading glass to be sure which class to enter. The two grading glasses show the boundaries between light and medium and between medium and dark. Be careful because there is more than one make of grading glass and arguments about which to use and whether honey is light or medium, medium or dark, are common.
· filtering can improve chances. There are many methods, but lint from filters can destroy your chances, so rinse filters clean before putting honey through them. It's best to be very careful with your extracting so that the honey is crystal clear from the start and does not need filtering.
· jar selection. Jars must be truly matching (same maker and type - look on the bottom), though the mould numbers on the bases no longer matter, and must be the correct type as specified in the schedule (usually standard 1lb squat with gold lacquered lids).
· lids These must be clean, rust free, honey free, matching. It's surprising how often this is badly done. Do not use second hand lids in a show (if ever). Check the rules. I they say gold lacquered don't use plastic lids!
· getting rid of incipient granulation, which is when the honey has a slight pearly look due to tiny crystals beginning to form, is best done in bulk. Trying to improve just one jar is often very difficult. The effects of heating can change colour and taste. If you must, try a short time in a microwave rather than longer heating..
· pollen in honey is not a fault and can be a selling point in every day trade, but it can easily be mistaken for granulation by a judge so it's best to put in really clear looking jars for showing. Too much pollen downgrades your entry.
· removing specks Using a tube or straw they can be sucked out, but it's better they were not there at all. Many specks come from putting perfect honey into dusty jars. It's easy to wash teacloths so use good ones and wipe all jars with care.
· bubble problems Filling with the jars pre-heated helps stop air sticking to the sides. Allowing time for bubbles to escape whilst in the settling tank is the best, so prepare in good time, let the honey settle and then fill jars slowly. Bubbles under the shoulder of a jar can easily be dislodged using a clean bent wire, then skimmed off later. This applies especially to hexagonal jars, which seem to trap air every time.
· correct weights Weigh some test jars full and empty so that you know you are giving correct value. Many people fill to just below the "filling line" which gives short measure and eliminates them from the prize list. As a rough guide, no air space should be visible below the edge of the closed lid. On the other hand, don't fill your jars so full that honey is all over the inside of the lid.
· What is the difference between naturally granulated (=naturally crystallised) and soft set (= creamed) honey? This is often not clear, but in general NC has set from clear liquid in the jar and usually has a grainier texture, whilst soft set has been seeded and stirred in bulk until just before it sets, then poured into jars. It has a smoother texture and often a flatter plainer top surface. Some soft set shows streaks up the side of the jar because the crystals were lined up by ascending bubbles just before it set. Creamed honey is the same thing as soft set, whatever some may tell you.
· All set honey must be SET, i.e. it is not mobile and would not run out of a jar left lying on its side. The idea that 'creamed' honey should be a creamy liquid is wrong. Don't use a whisk!
· Seeding for even setting and good granulation. Judges tend to prefer small crystals with a smooth feel on the tongue, so avoid long slow crystallisation that produces sandy hard grains. This can be done by careful seeding of clear honey with a sample that has the right texture. Mix in a pound of your best set honey, stirred up, with about 20 pounds of liquid in a tub, stir, be patient, re-stir, then in a day or three when there is some sign of crystallisation, bottle slowly and carefully, avoiding trapping bubbles.
· importance of good surface. How to achieve this? Skimming well before final setting helps, as does setting undisturbed in an even temperature. Make sure your shelf is level.
· Soft set honey timing :- seed and stir, then bottle about 7 days before the show. Do it in batches so that you can choose the best for the show.
· Have spare jars to each batch so you can test without spoiling show jars and can substitute if you find a fault..
· Use of OSR honey to start granulation in other honeys is often successful.
Keeping jars of honey for next time
· Problems with temperature. Sudden temperature changes, particularly cooling, cause frosting, when air creeps in between honey and jar. It is because of contraction of the honey inside the jar and of liquid component inside crystal lattice. There is no cure for frosting but it is not generally considered a serious fault, other things being equal.
· Granulation on the bottom of the jars when crystals slowly appear stuck to the glass. Avoid or cure this by warming, either in Microwave or hot water. In serious cases decant 3 jars to make 2 without the crystals and heat the remainder as spare. (but its colour may darken and not match)
· Microwaving honey. (No lids!) As a general rule, 1 minute per pound, but judge by results because heating one jar for one minute can give a different result from heating 6 jars for 6 minutes. Melted set honey usually throws a mist of bubbles. Allow time for these to rise and be skimmed off along with wax and other debris that is always present.
· In general keeping show jars for later shows does not get the desired results as stored jars always develop faults and faults are almost never cured by keeping. It's best to start from scratch for every show.
The judge wants:- absence of pollen, no crystallisation whatever, uniformity of honey (combs often have two or more colours in them), good taste and scent and no damage from wax moth caterpillars or other pests.
The judge will use a strong torch so check with your own torch, shining it through the comb from behind which makes it easy to see colour variations, crystallised cells and any hidden pollen.
Remember that comb and container are separated when the judge is working so make sure that there is a label on both and in the position, usually top right corner, stated in the rules.
· The whole comb (For Extraction)
The judge is looking for ease of extraction, therefore for:- evenness, cleanness, flatness, comb proud of wood for easy decapping, fullness, no travel staining or propolis, woodwork clean and sound, Judge will take comb out of box and taste a sample,
Cleaning a frame takes care and time. Dirty frames seldom win. Use a small sharp scraper or knife. Leave no dust on the honey. Containers must be bee-proof and glass sided (and easily opened). This is a class where beginners can have an advantage because all their equipment is new and clean.
· The cut comb
matching pairs must truly match, weights must be as schedule (gross, or nett, within limits stated, and matching). There should be no liquid honey in the box, so drain the cut block well before putting in. Cut it to fit and drain it on a cake rack overnight. Types of container should be standard - don't try fancy alternatives.
A cut comb is inspected much as whole comb, for crystals (none) pollen, colour, taste and aroma. The judge always tips the comb out to see the other side, so does not want any loose liquid in the box.
· Sections old style and rounds. General points as for other comb + good clean box.
Special honeys - Ling, Bell heather, Chunk.
sets like a jelly. The test is to draw a line across the surface with a tasting rod. The line should stay there and not fill in. With other honeys mixed in, it flattens after a little while. The distinctive taste and smell are looked for, but colour can vary according to where it came from. Bubbles trapped in the honey show it to be ling, and they should be fairly even, not too small, and evenly distributed. If they rise the honey is probably a mixture.
honey is only seen in special places like Ireland and Scotland. It is a clear dark red and liquid (unlike ling) and has a very distinct and lasting flavour.
Good chunk honey has:-
· half and half liquid to cut comb (the biggest bit of comb that will fit in the jar)
· same honey in comb as in liquid
· no crystallisation at all.
· no floating debris or bits of broken wax anywhere.
· very clean clear honey so the comb can bee seen well
· comb cut the right way up - it's a fault to put it in sideways or inverted. Look for the V shape of the sloping cells.
Some common Faults to avoid
Faults which eliminate
· underweight - check weigh your empty jars, weigh your full ones and subtract.
· dirt / hair in honey / rusty lids / specks in bottom of set jars. This judge often uses a high power lens so as to be able to identify objects in the bottom of jars. Try it yourself.
· not matching - includes jars, lids and honey, all must match as a pair or group.
· not in correct class - colour check (the show sec normally has colour grading glasses available)
· dirt or crystals on inside of lid - honey in the threads (honey + tin = black goo).
· scum of bubbles on surface of liquid. So skim carefully a day or so before the show. Jar should be over-filled enough to allow skimming to leave correct weight in jar.
· crystallisation in combs. Just one cell crystallised can eliminate an otherwise good comb.
· pollen in cut combs and sections, too much pollen in whole combs for extraction.
· crystals in clear honey - includes incipient cloudiness. Some judges take pollen cloudiness to be crystals, so don't take this chance. Only enter truly clear honey.
· Wrong viscosity, usually too runny because water content above about 20%, which can lead to fermentation. A smell of fermentation will be a total eliminator.
Faults which downgrade
· lack of clarity - pollen in clear honey
· floaters, (apart from dirt), such as wax specks, little bubbles
· smears on glass, tipped honey on otherwise clean lid
· unevenness in combs - colour mixtures, lumpy cappings, un-flatness, caps below woodwork, not all cells full.
· liquid honey under cut comb
· poor aroma, or the lack of any.
· boring or poor flavour, or the lack of it
· low viscosity (and artificially high viscosity)
· ling honey that isn't a true gel, due to other sources.
Do standards differ at different shows?
· They shouldn't but they do
· At a small show you can get away with minor faults, which would eliminate at a big one.
· hence prizes are more worthwhile the bigger the show.
Blocks of wax
First thing the judge looks for is a good colour and clearness of the wax. S/He may shine a torch through it to check for cloudiness due to water content.
Blocks should be:- correct weight; good colour; nice aroma when rubbed; flat topped, well cast with no moulding faults such as adhesions or lines; with no inclusions that show on the base, such as dust, which is easily seen, or water drops which leave little voids in the surface.
Watery wax often has a creamy or milky look and may have colour differences in layers. Gently rub off any sharp edges using the palm of your (very clean) hand. Old blocks generally suffer surface damage and they lose their aroma, so cast fresh for each competition or short season.
Try to find a nice presentation box so that your wax looks good - even though this is not supposed to influence the result. Some use special glass topped wooden boxes but a Ferrero Rocher chocolate box is a good substitute.
Some kinds of wood have their own smell, which may transfer to the wax, so avoid scented boxes however nice they look.
Try for :-
-selecting your brightest (not necessarily the palest) colour wax but do not overheat it or it will go browner.
-good filtering, although sedimentation over water can be very nearly as good with far less hassle.
-only take wax for the mould from the top layer in the melting pot. Try not to disturb any sediment.
-pre-heat the mould so no lines form on the sides of the wax.
-very slow cooling as it sets, in particular cover the mould so that the wax does not cool from the top surface.
There are all sorts of "tricks of the trade" about wax blocks, mostly to do with very slow even cooling to get e really flat topped block rather than the wavy surface that open-air cooling gives.
The same rules apply but these must also be well-matched in colour and size. If you make two pourings from the same saucepan, the later one may well be a different colour, so have the full number of moulds. Better still, make too many all at the same time and pick the best.
The wax must be good quality and colour just as for blocks, and well cast or made.
Present your candles upright in firm fireproof candlesticks unless otherwise instructed as at The National.
The candlesticks should not influence the judge - it's the candle and its performance that count.
The wick must be correct thickness for the size of candle (this puts tapered and fancy shaped candles at a disadvantage).
Wick should be waxed so that it stands well and is easy to light.
Wicks central (look at the base)
Candles are always burned by the judge, so make an extra one and check this yourself. You are looking for a clear light, no tall smoky flames (the wick should self-trim correctly) no deposits collecting on the wick, silence because of no water drops hissing as they boil, no smouldering beyond about 20 seconds when blown out, and ease of re-lighting.
I usually make a batch of about 15 and choose the best for the show.
Flame should be clear and still with no spitting due to included water.
A candle should not smoulder more than about 20 seconds when blown out or it may be hard to relight due to shortened wick. This can happen if the wax contains propolis or dust. The judge will re-light candles when cooled, to check this.
Fancy shape candles often have serious faults when it comes to burning, such as bits falling off or tapers, meaning the wick is never the right thickness, Simple candles, well made from clean wax, usually win.
Collections or compound classes
These are classes where you must put a range of items as a group, say two kinds of honey and one wax item.
The items in these are generally judged in just the same way as if they were in separate classes, but usually the judge awards points to each and adds them up for an overall score. This means you can get away with one poor entry carried by the other good ones, but two poor items is hard to compensate for.